# Combinational tree like accumulatioin

#1

Hello,
I want to create a (convertible) structure that will accumulate a list of signals in always_comb, here is a code that works perfectly fine (calc_elems is a list of signals, filled from 0 to in_size):

``````    calc_elems_len = 2 * in_size - 1
@block
def add(z, x, y):
@always_comb
def logic():
z.next = x + y
return logic

for i in range(in_size, calc_elems_len):
a = 2 * i - 2 * in_size
b = a + 1
``````

I can use it in simulation and it converts into correct VHDL. But its not very nice to use, I would like to do something like this:

``````    calc_elems_len = 2 * in_size - 1
for i in range(in_size, calc_elems_len):
a = 2 * i - 2 * in_size
b = a + 1
@always_comb
calc_elems[i].next = calc_elems[a] + calc_elems[b]
``````

The problem is that I get:
`myhdl.AlwaysCombError: signal ({'calc_elems'}) used as inout in always_comb function argument`
Which is not true, because each signal in the list is used exactly in one direction in one always_comb. Unless list of signals is treated as a whole, which is wrong.
Is there a way to achieve this without the need to create an extra add block?

#2

The option is to create `a` and `b` outside the `@always`, make them a list of ints, and then move the loop inside the `@always`.

#3

The error you get is a problem already discussed in other threads.
You can try this (not tested) :

``````    calc_elems_len = 2 * in_size - 1
for i in range(in_size, calc_elems_len):
a = 2 * i - 2 * in_size
b = a + 1
c = calc_elems[a] + calc_elems[b]
@always_comb
calc_elems[i].next = c
``````

#4

This one will more likely work (still not tested) :

``````    calc_elems_len = 2 * in_size - 1
c = [Signal(calc_elems[0].val) for _ in range(len(calc_elems))]
for i in range(in_size, calc_elems_len):
a = 2 * i - 2 * in_size
b = a + 1
@always_comb
c[i].next = calc_elems[a] + calc_elems[b]
@always_comb
def assign_me():
calc_elems[i].next = c[i]
``````

#5

IMO, and certainly if when converting to VHDL, that check in the code can be removed. The only issue is that when that signal is a top-level signal (which in this case I presume it isn’t) you would get an inout port …

#6

Thanks for help, its not top-level signal, what worked at the end is:

``````    @always_comb
for i in range(in_size, calc_elems_len):
calc_elems_helper[i].next = calc_elems[2 * i - 2 * in_size] + calc_elems[2 * i - 2 * in_size + 1]

@always_comb
def assign_me():
for i in range(in_size, calc_elems_len):
calc_elems[i].next = calc_elems_helper[i]
``````

For unknown to me reason when I moved loop outside always_comb I didn’t get any warnings/errors but signals were not assigned.

#7

That makes sense.
With loop outside always_comb, you have to `add_inst.append(add_me)` and `add_inst.append(assign_me)` inside the loop… if it works.